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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

The survey of 11,500 workers by Chinese employment agency Zhaopin found that 50.9 per cent did not get an annual bonus at the end of 2016. Another 9.6 per cent were told their bonus had been delayed until after the new year holiday.

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单词exceed 联想记忆:
我们每个人都会说些善意的谎言,这毫无疑问,问题在于为什么我们要这么做。有些善意的谎言可以挽救我们的关系,有些可以缓解忙碌的处境,还有些可以为我们赢得时间。我们每个人都在说善意的谎言,我们没有理由去否定这个事实。只要不会伤害到其他人,不会触犯法律,这些善意的谎言是会让我们的生活更美好的。大多数善意的谎言都是我们对于真相的另一种延伸的阐释。
从化石燃料转向可再生能源,无疑是我们这个时代最重要的工程挑战和科学挑战。

根据中国海关总署(General Administration of Customs)发布的数据,12月份以美元计的出口额同比减少6.1%至2094.2亿美元。这一跌幅比经济学家预期的中数多了2.1个百分点,也大于11月份修正后1.6%的跌幅(修正前该数字为增长0.1%)。
单词charity 联想记忆:
The pipelines were building in spite of poor performance for this year’s high-profile deal from Snap, the owner of Snapchat, in the US and investor concerns that a strengthening euro may curtail the earnings recovery in Europe.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

湖南发布建材行业“十三五”规划

三线城市居民的经济压力和人际关系压力相对较小,且拥有更好的社会环境、自然环境和基础设施。
汤姆?汉考克(Tom Hancock)上海补充报道
埃尔多安表示,德国总理安格拉?默克尔(Angela Merkel)“与荷兰没有什么不同”,并敦促移居海外的土耳其人不要在即将到来的欧洲选举中投票支持“现任政府和种族主义者”。要在今年9月成功竞选连任,默克尔面临一场硬仗。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

虽然这个心脏太虚弱,不能真的输送血液,但是这种细胞组织在修复受伤的心脏肌肉方面具有巨大潜力。
Today, the Financial Times reveals the fake gross domestic product data routinely released from many northern Chinese regions. There, solid alternative evidence suggests the authorities have “smoothed” the economic growth figures. They artificially boosted growth figures between 2012 and 2016, masking a real downturn, and last year covered up a genuine recovery.
《沃兹汽车》将于1月15日在底特律一个与北美国际汽车展(North American International Auto Show)联合举办的仪式上颁发十大最佳引擎奖。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 不过,这一涨幅显著低于此前一个月8.2%的环比涨幅。
  • 线下单一销售非家具行业终极模式 网购成未来亮点
  • 2月CPI同比上涨2.3%,高于预期的1.8%,为2014年7月以来最大涨幅。1月CPI同比上涨1.8%。
  • 北京发布住房公积金新政 部分年轻刚需购房者“重新规划未来”
  • 哈尔滨建材行业用人需求同比增39.6%
  • 3.Video Editing: 19.2 percent increase
    Consider:

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 全都是坑人套路 “零首付”背后的高利贷骗局, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

分析称下半年一二线楼市快速上涨 三四线相对稳定

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

“工匠精神”呼声四起 国内外照明产业的差距在哪里?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • New Year time is here. I hope you have a wonderful New Year. May every day hold happy hours for you.新年来临,祝新年快乐,愿你时时刻刻幸福欢乐!
    在经过了漫长的海选和五天紧张的半决赛之后,11位候选选手中其中一位成为了第八季英国达人秀2014年的冠军。
  • 美国退伍军人节也跟世界其他国家纪年第一次世界大战的节日重合,其中包括英国和英联邦国家澳大利亚以及加拿大的纪念日。
    日前,一名14岁的中国少年,在一个晚上的时间内克服了人类史上的两大恐惧:被困电梯和完成家庭作业。而这多亏了他机智的性格。
    It was visible, for example, on many of Frida Giannini’s Gucci runways, including the tablecloth shades and A-line shapes of leathers for autumn-winter 2014; the pastel tunics and ruffled hostess dresses of spring-summer 2013; the bright Beatle trouser suits and caftans of spring-summer 2009.
    米尔德里德的女儿7个月前遇害,但凶手仍然逍遥法外,主角一怒之下做出了一个大胆的决定:买下了小镇入口三张广告牌并在张贴图片中抨击颇有威望的警长威廉?威洛比。威廉的副手官迪克逊是一个幼稚的妈宝男,有暴力倾向。迪克逊卷入这件事后,米尔德里德和小镇执法系统之间的较量变得愈发激烈了。
    1. Buy expensive tailored clothing that only sort of fits so that most of the time your buttons appear to be just seconds from bursting.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 2015年房地产行业分化加剧 险资频登台“搅局”
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 智能家居市场:中小型家居企业将面临机遇与挑战

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

['temp?r?ri]
美联储退出购债计划的道路是否会经历坎坷?
报告称,2016年共有6.95亿网民使用手机上网,增长率已经连续第三年超过10%。在所有网民中,用智能手机上网的人占比达到了95.1%,而2015年时这一比例还只有90.1%。
此外,这也是北京大学连续第二年在亚洲大学排行榜上排名第二位。
Many grand and spectacular museums are located in picturesque cities like Bruges, Antwerp and Brussels. Art lovers can fully engage themselves in the numerous treasures dating back to the medieval period. Exploring the quiet towns and appreciating their Gothic architecture is also an opportunity not to be missed. As the hometown of the world’s best beers, chocolates and fries, everyone can be a gourmet here. With the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of World War I approaching, Belgium is set to draw many tourists in the coming years.
教育部之后表示,他们不会容忍这种欺骗行为,并已经要求公安部门进入进行调查。
Look no further than the title sponsor on their building—Smoothie King, a regional drink shop—to realize that the Pelicans have a serious relevancy problem. (By contrast, the NFL's Saints play in the Mercedes-Benz Superdome next door.)

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • If the answer is "yes", then maybe you are a Type D personality.
  • 7月房地产投资多项指标刷新纪录 下半年房地产投资两位数增幅难持
  • 然而据北京出入境边防检查总站(Beijing General Station of Exit and Entry Frontier Inspection)称,只有14,000名旅客办理了过境免签手续,远低于官方此前预计的20,000人。
    [?'naunst]
  • 中国建材扩张无度尝苦果 排污超标屡屡犯事
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 1. "Game of Thrones" (5.9 million)
    德拉吉在12月投票表决的次日作出回击,称欧元区政策制定者在动用政策工具推动通胀达标方面“是没有限度的”。
  • 据国家质量监督检验检疫总局发言人韩云平称,去年该局对1013批此类商品进行了随机检查--包括玩具、纸尿布、服装和厨具在内的消费品,其中415批商品不合格,占全部抽样产品的40.9%。
    The judging committee (of one) has spent weeks deciding which members of the Royal family, politicians and celebrities deserve one of these most galling of gongs to mark a grievous breach of protocol or lapse in mannerly judgement over the past year.
  • In addition, the top-ranking cities typically performed poorly in costs and culture and lifestyle. China's "cities of opportunity" continue to face challenges when it comes to building cities that satisfy the needs of the populace and provide a high quality of life.
    据张晓光表示,怀旧部分将包括出自上海文华电影制作工作室的电影,该公司成立于1946年、引领了中国文艺电影的新时代,将会让观众“一睹中国的电影文化和历史”。
  • 2013年机器人世界杯足球赛当地时间6月30日在荷兰落幕。经过激烈角逐,中国队以3∶2击败卫冕冠军东道主埃因霍温队夺冠。
    Wardrobe malfunctions was another common theme. Some hapless interviewees “showed up in sweatpants,” one “was wearing mismatched shoes,” and another “didn’t realize his zipper was down.”
    多年以前,布莱恩·克兰斯顿还未在《绝命毒师》中饰演沃尔特·怀特,他曾和哥哥一起在一家餐馆打工。那儿的主厨是个非常刻薄的人。2011年,在马克·马龙的电台节目里当播客时,克兰斯顿如此描述道:"无论你对他多好,他还是讨厌你。"因此,所有的服务生平时都在谈论着如何谋杀他。克兰斯顿说这就是"他们平时讨论的所有内容"。
  • 一些科学家说,2014年成为创下气温纪录的一年,最值得注意的一点是该年度并没有发生强大的厄尔尼诺现象,一种由于太平洋将巨大的热量输送到大气层所造成的大尺度天气模式。
    在过去的12个月里,这位22岁的T台女王兼真人秀明星赚得2200万美元,首次登顶福布斯模特收入榜。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 重庆绿色建材标准获批 4月1日起施行 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

地价倒逼房价 刚需被挤压至商住楼

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

人民日报:“电商专供”不该变味

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

宜家因砍伐600岁大树 被吊销FSC森林认证

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

青岛11月份楼市:郊区市场驶进“快车道”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 前“世界小姐”朴雅卡·乔普拉位列2015世界美女榜第九。她是一名印度演员兼歌手,是宝莱坞片酬最高的女演员之一,也是印度最受欢迎、知名度最高的名人之一。她获得过无数荣誉,包括印度国家电影奖的最佳女演员奖项,以及印度电影观众奖的四项大奖。
  • BrandZ表示,最具价值品牌的表现超过金融市场,这说明了它们的财务实力和对股东的价值。
  • LED行业景气度不佳 三安、亿光等另寻出路

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • The values of the citizenry are a democracy’s most important asset.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 魔术队倒是可上可下,并且他们现在正在走下坡路。现在,阿龙-戈登和尼古拉-武切维奇被从板凳席上拉了出来并且马里奥-海佐尼亚被雪藏了。
    scary puppy like head tilts and glares
    Topped with golden leaves and flavored with champagne, the confection was sold for $100 a pop.
  • 这样的要求不可谓不苛刻。现在,有上千个供应链岗位正虚位以待。如果你希望谋求此类职位,可行之策是先接受物流培训。目前有许多学院和大学都提供此类培训,其中有些是在线课程,如美国宾州州立大学(Penn State)就提供在线供应链管理研究生培训,并颁发证书。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • n. 结,节
  • 贾跃亭牵手李东生 智能家居大战一触即发
  • severe的人总是sever

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 建材行业2017年度策略:供给侧改革现成效,装配式建筑迎春风
  • Household substance abuse
  • 端午假期家居卖场再掀促销“风暴”
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

股市震荡助推楼市升温 未来楼市政策或继续放松

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 经济腾飞 中国原创家具迎来黄金时代
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 北京10月针对家具制造等5大行业开征VOCs排污费
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

oDesk和Elance(两家公司正处于并购流程)是两个自由职业者市场,你可以在上面迅速找到、联系并聘请到全球各地的自由职业者。需要一个网站开发员或内容写手?不必雇佣一名全职员工,招募一名自由职业者就可搞定。活跃在这两个市场上的自由职业者多达100余万人。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Few of the Fed's forecasts have proceeded according to plan over the course of the sharp economic downturn and choppy recovery, a fact that Fed officials now openly acknowledge. 'We have been disappointed in the pace of growth, and we don't fully understand why,' Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke said at his final news conference last month.
il不+legal合法的→不合法的
In the episode "The Little Kicks," we get to see Elaine's fabulously hilarious dance moves. It's almost impossible to imagine a version of Seinfeld in which Elaine doesn't dance in such a funky way. And yet shockingly, this was almost the case. Writer Spike Fereston knew that series creator Larry David was against the dance, and he was only able to get it approved after David left. He was able to get the dance approve, but still received a lot of push back from the other writers.
对专业投资者而言,2014年最令人沮丧的一点是,美国经济复苏时断时续。2014年1月,经济领域捷报频传。然而,在短短几周内,一场暴风雪席卷全美,各种经济数据似乎也因此停摆。
"Some geniuses in the internet industry created miracles, but that does not tell the whole story," said Chen. "Business has its own rules. Before you start up, you have to know how to produce products, how to sell them, how to manage a company. Those lessons you cannot expect a fresh graduate to know."
2)我相信你的判断:这句话的言外之意:“你征得了我的许可。我信任你。好吧,去做吧。”听到这样的话,是不是感觉很振奋?我保证你会为说这种话的人赴汤蹈火,因为这些话让人感觉如此振奋。你的员工也罢,你的同僚也罢,效果没有区别。
伯利兹城最富盛名的旅游胜地莫过于巨大的水下天坑--蓝色巨洞以及玛雅遗址。
本默切重振公司士气的艰苦努力将取得回报。美国“薪酬沙皇”将对他网开一面。而且各个市场的持续回暖将令公司有机会偿还一大笔美国纳税人的救助资金。
另一名学员表示:这个项目让我的事业获得了巨大飞越,为我在毕业后马上就担任一个战略最高层管理职位做好了准备。
On the a monthly basis prices fell by an average 0.5 per cent.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

房企投资连涨4月 拿地意愿增强楼市复苏

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 7. Build a reputation.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • According to Brandi Bennett at HostGator.com,maintaining a blog on a well-hosted website, or volunteering your time and skills, shows instead of tells the community, and thereby builds expertise and trust.
  • “爱情骗子”骗财约1200万
  • n. 情报,情报工作,情报
  • 东方集团彻底退出建材零售业
  • Inside larger technology companies, female employees will be hoping for signs of change in pay and promotions — but will also be on guard, as a men’s rights backlash brews in some corners of Silicon Valley.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 长江经济带获资金支持 家居业有望直接受益
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Of course, these same new forces may also trigger a backlash and a reversion to old command-and-control ways of leading. The politicians who dominate the world stage are, depressingly, mostly cut from the old cloth, and the leadership challenges they face, from Brexit to North Korea, are particularly complex.
  • 然而,时间较长似乎并不代表学业较轻松。要保持学习劲头,合理的时间管理至关重要。英国华威商学院的一名毕业生谈到:“几个必修项目会帮助你跟上进度并避免在最后阶段非常紧张。”总的来说,2012级毕业生花了两年半多一点的时间完成学业。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

深圳房价暴涨卖家反悔 被判赔违约金44万元

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